Terminology

 

The following is a listing of commonly used martial arts terminology.  The martial arts student is encouraged to gain proficiency in the use of these terms and other terminology associated with martial arts training and history.  This listing is provided as a starting point for a martial arts student to develop their own comprehensive listing of useful terminology.

STANCE TECHNIQUES

  • Ayumidachi – natural walking stance
  • Dachi - stance
  • Gankaku dachi – crane stance
  • Gyaku nekoashidachi – reverse cat stance
  • Gyakuzuki dachi – reverse punch stance
  • Gyakuzuki tsukkomidachi- reverse thrusting punch stance
  • Hachijidachi or Shizenhontai – eight letter stance or natural main body stance
  • Han zenkutsadachi – natural forward stance or short forward stance
  • Hangetsudachi – half-moon stance
  • Hanmi no kokutsudachi – half-side viewing back stance
  • Hanmi no nekoashidachi – half-side viewing cat stance
  • Hanmigamae – half-side viewing fighting stance
  • Hantachi – “half standing”; stance on one knee
  • Heikodachi – parallel stance
  • Heisokudachi – closed toes/feet stance
  • Junzuki tsukkomidachi – lunge or thrusting stance
  • Kibadachi – “straddle stance” or horse stance, also naifanchi dachi or naihanchi dachi
  • Kokutsudachi – back or back leaning stance
  • Kosadachi – cross-legged stance
  • Kousa dachi – cross stance
  • Mahanmi no kokutsudachi – side viewing back stance
  • Mashomen no nekoashidachi – front viewing cat stance
  • Morohaidachi – one-legged stance in which one foot rest alongside the other leg's knee
  • Motodachi – short forward stance
  • Musubidachi – open toes/feet attention stance
  • Naifanchi dachi- straddle stance
  • Naihanchi dachi – straddle stance
  • Nekoashidachi – cat stance
  • Nifanchindachi – straddle legged stance
  • Okutsudachi – back stance
  • Rei no ji dachi – letter (Japanese letter, re) stance also called V-stance
  • Sagiashi dachi – crane stance
  • Sanchin dachi – hour-glass stance or inner tension stance
  • Seishan dachi – crescent moon stance
  • Shiko dachi – square stance
  • Shizentai – natural stance
  • Sone dachi – prepared stance
  • Sotowadachi – outer circular stance
  • Suwari dachi – kneeling stance
  • Tachi dachi – standing stance
  • Tate seishan dachi – vertical crescent moon stance
  • Teiji dachi – T-shape stance
  • Tsuriashi dachi – crane stance
  • Tsuru ashi dachi - “crane stance”
  • Uchi hachiji dachi – inversed open stance
  • Uchiwadachi – inner circular stance
  • Yoi dachi – ready stance
  • Yoko seishan dachi – sideward crescent moon stance
  • Zenkutsudachi – front or forward leaning stance

BLOCKING TECHNIQUES

  • Age uke – upward block
  • Awase uke – joined hand block
  • Gedan barai uke – low sweeping block
  • Gedan ude uke – low forearm block
  • Haishu uke – back hand block
  • Hajiki uke – snapping block
  • Hiji uke – elbow block
  • Hirate mawashi uke – circular block
  • Hirate sukui age uke – double block
  • Hiza uke – knee block
  • Juji uke - “X” block
  • Kake uke – hooking block
  • Kakiwake – reverse wedge block
  • Kakuto uke - “wrist joint block”, “crane block”, “arch block” also known as ko uke
  • Manji uke – double block (example: gedan barai and soto uke at the same time)
  • Morote ude uke – augmented forearm block
  • Nagashi uke – sweeping block
  • Osae uke – “pressing block”
  • Shoken sukui age uke – scooping block
  • Shuto uke – knife-hand block
  • Soto ude uke – outside forearm block
  • Soto yoko te uke – inside block
  • Sukui uke – scooping block
  • Teisho uke – “palm heel block”
  • Uchi ude uke – inside forearm block
  • Uchi yoko te – inside forearm block
  • Uke – blocking technique

PUNCHING TECHNIQUES

  • Age zuki – rising or upper punch
  • Awase zuki – combined punch
  • Boshiken zuki – thumb knuckle punch
  • Choku zuki – straight punch
  • Gedan zuki – punch to the lower section of the body
  • Gyakutsuki – reverse punch
  • Hasami zuki – scissor punch
  • Heiko zuki- parallel punch
  • Hiraken zuki – fore-knuckle punch or flat fist punch
  • Hitosashi ippon ken tsuki – fore-finger knuckle fist punch
  • Ippon ken tsuki– one knuckle fist punch
  • Ippon-zuki – single punch
  • Juntsuki – forward-leaning stance with lunge punch
  • Junzuki – wado-ryu term for oi-zuki or lunge punch
  • Kage zuki – hook punch
  • Kagi zuki – hook punch
  • Kizami zuki - “jab punch”
  • Mawashi zuki – round punch
  • Morote mawashi zuki – double round punch
  • Morote zuki – double punch or “U” punch
  • Nakadaka ippon ken – middle finger knuckle fist
  • Oi zuki – lunge punch
  • Oyayubi ipponken zuki – thumb knuckle fist punch
  • Seiken zuki – forefist punch
  • Seizuki – normal punch
  • Shoken zuki – single knuckle punch
  • Sonobazuki – alternate punching
  • Tate zuki – vertical punch
  • Ura zuki – upper cut punch, back punch and also referred to as close punch
  • Yama tsuki – “mountain punch”, also referred to as U-shaped punch
  • Zuki – thrust or punch

STRIKING TECHNIQUES

  • Ato uchi – delayed strike
  • Haishu uchi – back hand strike
  • Haito uchi- ridge-hand strike
  • Hiji ate – elbow strike
  • Hiji uchi – elbow strike
  • Ippon nukite uchi – one-finger spear hand strike
  • Kaisho uchi - open hand strike
  • Kakushiken uchi – crane beak strike
  • Kakuto uchi - “wrist joint strike”, also known as ko uchi
  • Kentsui uchi - “hammer fist” strike
  • Kite – finger strike
  • Koken uchi – wrist joint strike
  • Kumade uchi - “bear hand” strike
  • Mawashi empi uchi – circular elbow strike
  • Mawashi hiji ate – circular elbow strike
  • Naname – diagonal strike
  • Nihon nukite uchi – two-finger spear hand strike
  • Nukite uchi – “spear hand” strike
  • Otoshi empi uchi – dropping elbow strike
  • Otoshi hiji ate – dropping elbow strike
  • Seiryuto - “bull strike”, hand technique using the back of the knife hand
  • Shotei uchi – palm-hand strike
  • Shuto uchi – knife-hand strike
  • Tate empi uchi – upward elbow strike
  • Teisho uchi - “palm heel strike”
  • Tettsui uchi – bottom fist strike
  • Uraken uchi – backfist strike
  • Ushiro empi uchi – rear elbow strike
  • Yoko empi uchi – side elbow strike
  • Yoko mawashi empi uchi – side-round elbow strike
  • KICKING TECHNIQUES
  • Ashi waza – foot technique
  • Fumikomi – stamping kick
  • Geri – kick
  • Gyaku mawashigeri – reverse round kick
  • Hiza geri – knee kick
  • Hiza mawashi geri – round knee kick
  • Keage – snap kick but also literally means to kick upward
  • Kekomi – thrust kick also literally means to kick straight into a single point
  • Keri - “kick”
  • Kingeri – groin kick
  • Mae ashi geri – kicking with the front leg
  • Mae geri keage - “front snap kick”
  • Mae geri kekomi - “front thrust kick”
  • Mawashi geri – round kick
  • Mikazuki geri – crescent kick
  • Nami-gaeshi – “returning wave” leg/foot technique used to block, strike and sweep
  • Nidan geri – double kick
  • Otoshi geri – dropping kick
  • Sokuto geri – foot blade kick
  • Soto mikazuki geri – outward crescent kick
  • Tobi geri – jumping or flying kick
  • Ura mawashigeri – reverse round kick
  • Uchi mawashi geri – inside round kick
  • Ushiro geri – back kick
  • Ushiro kingeri – backward groin kick
  • Ushiro mawashi geri – back round kick
  • Yoko geri keage - “side snap kick”
  • Yoko geri kekomi - “side thrust kick”
  • Yoko tobi geri - “flying side kick”

SWEEPING TECHNIQUES

  • Ashi barai – foot sweep
  • Barai – sweeping
  • Harai waza – brushing or sweeping techniques
  • Kari – sweeping an opponent’s legs

ANATOMY

  • Ago – jaw
  • Ashi – foot and sometimes leg or shin
  • Ashi kubi – ankles
  • Ashi yubi – toes
  • Atama – head
  • Bitei - coccyx
  • Chelang – seventh dorsal vertebra
  • Choto – frontal nasal point
  • Chusoku – sole of foot
  • Daitai – thigh
  • Doh – torso or chest protector
  • Dokko – mastoid process
  • Empi – elbow
  • Gaiwan – outer forearm
  • Ganmen – face
  • Haishu – back-hand
  • Haisoku – instep
  • Haito – inner knife-hand or ridge-hand
  • Hara – “belly”, suggesting centeredness and groundedness/center of balance, center of the body where one’s soul resides, lower abdomen or anatomical spiritual center
  • Hichu – Adam's apple
  • Hiji – elbow
  • Hiza – knee
  • Hizo – small of the back
  • Itten – “one point”; point in the lower abdomen about three inches below the navel
  • Josokutei – ball of foot
  • Kachikake – point of the jaw
  • Kakato – heel
  • Kansetsu – joint
  • Kasumi – temples
  • Katado - heel
  • Keichu – back of the neck
  • Kin – groin
  • Kinteki – testicles
  • Kodenko – lumbar vertebrae
  • Koken – “wrist joint”
  • Koshi – hips
  • Kote – wrist
  • Kubi – neck
  • Kyoei – point between the forth and fifth ribs
  • Kyosen – solar plexus
  • Kyototsu – top of the sternum
  • Mata – inner part of the thigh
  • Men/Kao – face
  • Mikazuki – angle of the jaw
  • Mimi – ears
  • Mune – chest
  • Murasame – right carotid artery
  • Naiwan – inner forearm, inside of the arm
  • Seiken – forefist
  • Sakotsu – clavicle
  • Shuto te – knife-hand
  • Sobi – bottom of calf
  • Soda – seventh cervical vertebra
  • Sokuto – foot blade, edge of foot, or knife-foot
  • Suigetsu – pit of the stomach
  • Sune - shin
  • Te – hand
  • Teisoku – foot arch
  • Tendo – fontanelle
  • Tento – top of the head
  • Ude – arm or forearm
  • Uraken – backfist
  • Yubi – fingers
  • Yubisaki - toe tops

MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES

  • Ashi sabaki – foot work
  • Ayumiashi – walking or stepping
  • Choyaku – jumping
  • Kagami – ducking
  • Kaiten – turning
  • Kawashi – avoiding
  • Nagasu – side shifting
  • Nijiriashi – gliding step
  • Nogare – escaping
  • Sabaku – movement, “to judge decisively a cut”
  • Suriashi – sliding movement
  • Surikomiashi – cross step walking, two steps forward or two steps backward
  • Tai sabaki – non-linear stepping resulting in body movement to gain an advantage over an opponent
  • Taiju no ido – weight shifting
  • Tsugiashi – step to step movement
  • Yoko sabaki – moving to the side to gain an advantage over an opponent
  • Yoriashi – step/slide movement

POSTURE

  • Ai gamae – posture exhibited with facing an opponent
  • Aihanmi – when two facing partners find themselves with same feet forward
  • Anza – cross-legged
  • Chudan – middle
  • Chudan kamae – center posture
  • Gedan – low
  • Gedan kamae – downward posture
  • Hasso kamae – vertical posture
  • Hidari – left
  • Hidariashimae – standing with left foot forward
  • Horan no kamae – “egg in the nest ready position”, where hand covers the fist
  • Iaigoshi – ready posture kneeling on one knee
  • Jodan – upper
  • Jodan kamae – upper posture
  • Kamae – fighting posture referring to a strong physical and mental state, postures of engagement
  • Kamaete – post position
  • Mae – front
  • Migi – right
  • Migiashimae – standing with right foot forward
  • Naka – center
  • Seiza – kneeling position
  • Soto – outside
  • Suware – sit
  • Tachi – standing posture
  • Uchi – inside
  • Ushiro – back
  • Ushiro ni – back
  • Waki kamae – reverse side or center posture
  • Yoi – ready position
  • Yoko – side
  • Za – kneeling/sitting posture
  • Zarei – seated bow, kneeling bow
  • Zazen – seated meditation
  • Zenshin - “forward”

 

ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • Ai – blending, harmony, joining, union, to concentrate or focus, harmony which exist in all things
  • Ai uchi – “harmonizing strikes” or mutual killing
  • Aiki – impassive state of mind with the chi is collected in the hara, united spirit, the spiritual principle of destroying an adversary’s will to fight, or the physical act of dominating an adversary by harmonizing with his force and redirecting it
  • Aikido – budo system derived from Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu
  • Aikijujutsu – Daito Ryu and the family of jujutsu systems descended from it emphasizing the development and use of aiki.
  • Anatman – “nonsoulness”
  • Asa geiko – training taking place in the morning
  • Atatamaru – stretching and warm-up exercises
  • Atemi waza -technique attacking the vital points of the body
  • Bajutsu – fighting on horseback
  • Batto – term signifying a draw and strike in an initial movement with the sword, to draw a sword
  • Battojutsu - “the craft of drawing out the sword” – an old term for iaijutsu and often is used interchangeably with the terms iaijutsu and batto
  • Bo – staff of varying length most often made of oak
  • Bojutsu – art of using the bo
  • Boken – wooden sword
  • Bonno – point at which a warrior freezes or loses his calm
  • Bu – martial
  • Budo – martial way, the way of combat or martial way
  • Budo Shoshinshu – 16th century treatise on Japanese warrior ethics and life style
  • Budoka – one who trains in a school of budo
  • Bugei – “martial art”; arts developed for the sole purpose of real combat, arts of combat
  • Bujin – warrior
  • Bujutsu – techniques of combat or warrior techniques, same as bugei
  • Buki – term referring to weapons of combat
  • Bunkai – application of technique, technique interpretation usually associated with kata movements
  • Bunkai soto ura – outward application
  • Bunkai ura – hidden application
  • Buryaku – military strategy
  • Bushi – warrior of the samurai caste, warriors which followed a family lineage
  • Bushi damashi – the spirit of the warrior
  • Bushido – “Way of the Warrior”; feudal code of Japanese warrior ethics
  • Chi – Chinese word to denote vital energy or spirit, life forece
  • Chigiriki – weapon consisting of a wooden staff, chain and iron ball used to defend against the sword
  • Chin Na – Chinese word for grappling art
  • Daimyo – “great name”
  • Daiyu – great action/free action
  • Daki-kubi – beheading while leaving skin to allow the head to remain connected with the neck
  • Dan – black belt level, rank, degree or grade, “carve steps up the cliff”
  • Debana o kujiku – surprise attack
  • Den – transmitting tradition
  • Deshi – student or disciple
  • Dim Mak – Chinese system of strikes or touches that disrupt a victims vital force causing death
  • Do - “the Way”
  • Dojo – “way place”, training hall, place of the way, place of enlightenment
  • Dozo – please
  • Eiku or kai – an oar used by Okinawan fishermen and used also for self-defense
  • Emono-jutsu – Okinawan term for the way of weapons or Ryukyu kobujutsu
  • Fudo shin – immovable mind
  • Fudochi – state exemplified by a free mind
  • Gaku – written diploma awarded in martial arts
  • Gakui – mastered secret
  • Gasshuku – intensive training
  • Gasshuku – special training camp usually of members of the same school or style
  • Gebdai – modern or referring to the period after World War II
  • Gedan tsukagashira – head of a weapon
  • Gei – art, the cultivation of craft
  • Gi - uniform
  • Giri – “right reason” or moral obligation
  • Go – hard
  • Go no sen – allowing the attacker to move first and then counter attacking
  • Goho – implies using hard techniques
  • Gokuhi/Hi-ho/Hijutsu/Hiden – references hidden techniques
  • Gorenda – five part strike
  • Gua or Kuwa – hoe
  • Gung Fu - Cantonese generic name for a wide range of Chinese combative systems
  • Gyakuhanmi – when two facing partners find themselves with opposite feet forward
  • Gyakute mochi – reverse grip
  • Gyakute nigiri – reverse hold
  • Hai - yes
  • Haishin-undo – back-stretching
  • Hajime – begin
  • Hakama – pleated pants which formed part of the regular dress of the samurai and budo systems
  • Hakkakubo – eight-sided bo
  • Hakko ryu – Eight-Light School
  • Hakuda – period of training
  • Han – 45 degrees
  • Hanare – release
  • Hane – knocking down
  • Hangeki – counter with an ending blow
  • Hanshi – honorary title of master
  • Hanshi – master instructor or headmaster of a ryu
  • Happo Zanshin – alert in eight directions
  • Haragei – belly art; art of controlling and moving from one’s center
  • Hasami mochi – palm grip
  • Hasami nigiri – palm hold
  • Heiho – strategy and tactics, principles of war/principles of peace
  • Heijoshin – a clam but alert state of mind, “presence of mind”
  • Henshin – one sided or biased mind
  • Hiki-te – to retract the arm/hand to the chambered position resulting in a load, strike, or pull
  • Hishigu – smash/attack with a strong offensive movement/strike your opponent with all your strength
  • Hitotsu – one
  • Hodoku - compassion
  • Hojo undo – conditioning or supplementary exercises
  • Hombu – main or head school for a martial arts style
  • Honshin – original mind
  • Hontai – change sides
  • Honte mochi – normal grip
  • Honte nigiri – normal hold
  • Hoshin no kokoro – release your mind/free mind/released mind
  • Hyoshi – timing
  • I – Chinese word for mind, intent
  • Iaido – sword drawing art
  • Iaijutsu – essentially the same as battojutsu with the term battojutsu used prior to the term iaijutsu
  • Ibuki – breathing mind
  • Ichiban - “first” or of highest quality
  • Ikiai – harmony of breath with movement
  • In – soft, female, dark, or negative principle of nature
  • In/Yo – positive/negative, dualities of the Way
  • Ippon kumite – one step sparring
  • Ippon seoi nage – one-arm shoulder throw
  • Irimi – entering an opponent so as to use the attackers force against him or her
  • Irimi uke – evasive move in a diagonal direction
  • Iru - entering
  • Ishizuki – steel point or blade fixed to a staff
  • Iye – no
  • Jaku  (sabi in Japanese) – refers to tranquility
  • Japan’s four-caste system – merchant, artisan, peasant, warrior
  • Jintu Shinpen – describes a person capable of totally free action
  • Jinza – Japanese shrine
  • Jitsu – describes conditions of strength, fullness, protection, support stability, etc.
  • Jitte or Jutte – type of sai with only one hook-guard
  • Jiyu ippon kumite – one attack
  • Jiyu kumite – free attack or free style sparring
  • Jo – short staff, 5 shaku
  • Jogai – “out of bounds” command used in tournaments
  • Jojutsu – art of using the jo
  • Ju – soft, pliancy, suppleness, flexibility, or yielding
  • Ju ippon kumite – one step prearranged fighting
  • Ju no ri – principle of yielding, softness and flexibility
  • Juchi – state in which the mind has stopped
  • Judo – yielding way
  • Juho – implies using softness or yielding techniques
  • Juji – crossing
  • Jujutsu – yielding art
  • Jujutsuka – one who practices jujutsu
  • Jumbi-undo – warm-up and stretching exercises
  • Junbi-undo – warm-up exercises
  • Jutsu – art or technique
  • Jutsu or waza – techniques
  • Ju-yoku-go-o-sei-suru - “gentleness controls force”
  • Kachi – victory
  • Kaeshi mochikake – changing the grip by sliding the bo
  • Kagai – single needle
  • Kage - shadow
  • Kaiden – “final teaching”; highest grade in some Japanese arts
  • Kake waza – hooking technique
  • Kakede – hand techniques involving gripping
  • Kakubo – four-sided bo
  • Kakushi – references concealed weapons
  • Kakushi waza - “hidden techniques”
  • Kakushijutsu – art of using hidden weapons
  • Kakuto bugei – includes all weapon techniques
  • Kama – bladed sickle used to harvest grain and a formidable weapon
  • Kamajutsu – art of using the kama
  • Kami – a spirit as conceived in the Shinto religion
  • Kamiza – “spirit seat”; shelf on the front wall of a Japanese training hall where a shrine resides
  • Kamiza – bow used to begin and end all kata exercises
  • Kan – perception, the ability to foresee intended movements, also referred to as omi
  • Kan geiko – training taking place in the winter
  • Kansetsu waza – “joint techniques”
  • Kanzashi – forked needle
  • Kappo or kuatsu – techniques used to revive opponents
  • Kappo waza – “resuscitating techniques”
  • Karate - “empty hand”; system of combat developed on Okinawa emphasizing striking
  • Karate-do - “way of karate”
  • Karatedo – budo form of karate
  • Karateka- practitioner of karate
  • Kata – form, sequential movements done to develop technical accuracy, directional awareness, technique association and appropriate body dynamics
  • Kata – formalized series of techniques conforming to a pattern utilized to perfect martial art techniques
  • Kataki – opponent
  • Katsu – victory
  • Katsugihikitori - flip back to arm
  • Kei – attention is focused onto a single point
  • Keiko – refers to practice or training/reflection and refinement, training, “to involve oneself in the process”, “to meditate upon the old or ancient”
  • Keikogi - uniform
  • Kempo – generic term referring to fighting arts using the fist, also in Chinese pronounced Chuan Fa
  • Ken – fist, sword
  • Kengo - “great sword”
  • Kenjutsu – sword art
  • Kensei - “sword saint”: honorary swordsmanship title also refers to silent kiai technique in mediation
  • Kenshi “swordsman”
  • Ki – Japanese word denoting spirit, breath, or life force, judgment and will/state of mind prepared for anything, life force
  • Kiai – “spirit shout”; focused or concentrated life force
  • Kihon – fundamental (basic), basic tecniques
  • Kihonwaza – basic techniques
  • Kime – focus of power, focused or concentrated life force
  • Ki-o-tsuke - “attention”
  • Kiri – to cut
  • Kirisute gomen – “killing and going away”
  • Kobudo – old martial way or ancient martial art
  • Kobujutsu – art of using weapons
  • Koen – riddle with no logical answer used to achieve enlightenment
  • Kohai – student junior to oneself
  • Kokomi – thrust
  • Kokoro – heart, mental attitude, spirit
  • Kokyo – breath, breathing exercises
  • Kokyu chikara – breath power; internal power as opposed to physical strength
  • Kon – Okinawan name for bo
  • Koryu – older practices
  • Koshi no chikara – hip power
  • Koshihikitori - flip back to hip
  • Koshin - “rearward”
  • Kotekitae – forearm conditioning
  • Kritsu – stand to attention
  • Ku – emptiness {Ku (Chinese) and Kara (Japanese)}
  • Kuatsu – resuscitation method for lost of consciousness due to strangulation or shock
  • Kuden – oral teachings
  • Kumite – fighting or sparring, “crossing hands”
  • Kumite no bunkai – application of techniques in sparring
  • Kumi-uchi – unarmed forms of grappling from which jujutsu evolved
  • Kung Fu – Mandarin generic name for a wide range of Chinese combative systems
  • Kurai – quiet state of mind
  • Kuride – hand techniques involving hooking
  • Kuro obi – black belt
  • Kusarigama – weapon consisting of a kama, chain and iron ball used to defend against the sword
  • Kuzushi – to off-balance an opponent before executing a technique
  • Kyo – describes conditions of weakness, emptiness, desire, fear, greediness, instability, etc.
  • Kyojitsu – term used to describe two opposites in physical, mental and spiritual states
  • Kyoshi – master instructor or teacher
  • Kyu – class grade prior to a dan grade
  • Kyuba no michi – “The Way of the bow and horse”
  • Kyujutsu – archery fighting
  • Kyushakubo – long staff, 9 shaku
  • Kyusho – vital points
  • Li – Chinese word for strength
  • Ma – moments of time or intervals of time/ not spatial distance between opponents but encompasses everything that exist, space, negative space
  • Ma-ai – distance between opponents
  • Mae kote hikitori – front flip
  • Mae ukemi – forward fall or roll
  • Mai ni – forward
  • Maitta - “I give up”
  • Make – defeat
  • Makiwara – a free-standing or held, usually straw wrapped, device used to train techniques
  • Makoto – feeling of sincerity
  • Manabu – learning by imitating
  • Manji sai – sai consisting of a half reversed tang pair
  • Marman – weak points on the body
  • Marubo – round bo
  • Massugo ni – straight
  • Matsukaze – kata that is also known as Wankan in some styles/translates as “pine wind”, “pine in the wind”, and “wind through the pines"
  • Matte – stop or wait
  • Mawatte – turn to the rear
  • Mayoi – mind obscured by hesitation and doubt
  • Meijin – a great master
  • Menkyo – license or certificate
  • Metsuke – gaze or proper use of the eyes
  • Michi – path or way
  • Misogi – techniques of purification
  • Mizume – defeat of sight
  • Mochikae – grip change
  • Mochikake – changing the grip without sliding the bo
  • Moichido – repeat
  • Mokuso - meditate
  • Monjin – martial arts disciple
  • Monkasei – student or disciple
  • Monouchi – blade
  • Morote kote mawashi hikitori – two-handed circular flip
  • Moshin – mind of delusion
  • Moto or chukon-bu – center of bo or konarigato gozaimashita
  • Mu – nothingness/void
  • Mudansha – students without black-belt ranking
  • Mumyo – means “not clear” and refers to delusion, doubt or vacillation
  • Munen – no thought state of mind
  • Mushin – no mind or without thought
  • Musubi – movement that serves to rejoin or unify opposites
  • Muto – no sword
  • Naga surujin – long surujin with a length of approximately 230 to 240 centimeters
  • Nagashi – sweeping away
  • Nage – top of a weapon
  • Nage waza – throwing technique
  • Naginata – long sword
  • Naginatajutsu – naginata fighting
  • Naore – finish
  • Nidan – second level
  • Ninja – stealth; feudal Japanese group of spies and assassins
  • Nunchaku – two or more pieces of wood joined by horsehair which may have been used as a horse bridle, usually consisting of 2 sections, 3 sections, or 4 sections
  • Nunchiyaku – two part flail
  • O – major or great
  • Obi – belt
  • Obyoski Kobyoshi, Kobyoshi Obyoshi – slow beat, fast beat; fast beat, slow beat
  • Oku – secrets held deep inside
  • Okuden – hidden teachings, secret or hidden techniques
  • Okugi – secret or hidden techniques
  • Omote waza – outside or obvious technique
  • On – debt, obligation, or favor; a burden
  • Onaji waza - “same technique
  • Onegai shimasu – “please help me”
  • Osae – pressing or binding
  • Osu – respectful acknowledgement
  • Otagai ni rei – “bow in respect to others”
  • Oyo waza – applications interpreted from techniques in kata
  • Pranayama – controlled breathing exercises
  • Rakka – blocking with enough effectiveness that an opponent is defeated with one blow
  • Ran bu ho – techniques performed spontaneously for thirty seconds against imaginary attachers
  • Randori – freestyle practice in jujutsu and other grappling arts
  • Rei – etiquette
  • Reigi – refers to proper dojo etiquette
  • Reihai – ceremonial bow
  • Renchusei - trainee
  • Rensei – practice tournament
  • Renshi – honorary title denoting an expert instructor and practitioner
  • Renshu – period of training
  • Ritsurei – standing bow
  • Ritsuzen – standing meditation
  • Rochin – short spear used with the tinbe
  • Rokkakubo – six-sided bo
  • Rokushakubo or tambo – mediaum staff, 6 shaku
  • Ronin – “wave man”; masterless samurai
  • Ryaku – strategy
  • Ryu – style of an art; school, tradition, flow of formal traditions, generic term denotes the flow of water
  • Ryugi – style taught in a ryu
  • Ryuha – styles or schools and their branches
  • Ryusha – disciple receiving instruction within a ryu
  • Sai – an iron elongated fork originating from China and used as a weapon
  • Saijutsu – art of using the sai
  • Saki or Kontei – tip or end of a weapon
  • Sakki – intuitive feeling
  • Samurai – “one who serves”; warrior in feudal Japan
  • Sanbon kumite - “three step sparring”
  • Sanbon shobu – three point match used in tournaments
  • Sanni ittai – three principles of unification (1. Rightly follow teachings, 2. Have an undisturbed and tranquil mind and 3. Have heijoushin which enables one to freely apply technique)
  • Sansetsukon – three section staff
  • Sanshakubo or hanbo – half staff, 3 shaku
  • Sashite – raising of the hand either to strike, grab or block
  • Satori – enlightenment,point in time when a warrior experiences an opening of the mind which provides a deep understanding of the experiences of life, sudden or spontaneous enlightenment
  • Saya no uchi batto gohon – five basic techniques of drawing and cutting
  • Sayo – action
  • Seiryoku zen yo – refers to the ability to use chi to its maximum efficiency
  • Seishan – crescent moon
  • Seishi choetsu – the state beyond life and death
  • Seishin tanren – spirit forging
  • Seitei-gata – standard forms
  • Seito – student or disciple
  • Seme waza – attacks
  • Sempai – senior student
  • Sempai ni rei – “bow to the senior students”
  • Sen no sen – attacking at the same moment as your attacker
  • Sen sen no sen – attacking your attacker before the mental strategy is put into physical form
  • Sen -taking the initiative
  • Senken – movement performed as a result of anticipating the movement of an opponent
  • Sensei - teacher
  • Sensei ni rei – “bow to the teacher”
  • Settsuku – connection
  • Shi – master, the radical for shi is that for “hill”
  • Shiai – match or contest
  • Shidoin – recognized instructor who has not yet been recognized as a sensei, also assistant instructor
  • Shihan – master teacher or teacher of teachers
  • Shime waza – choking/strangling techniques
  • Shin – the mind or heart
  • Shingitai – advancement in a martial art to signify moral character (shin), technical skill (gi), and        physical development (tai)
  • Shinmyouken – the way to win by freely allowing an adversary to exercise techniques and then rendering them ineffective
  • Shinsa – promotion examination
  • Shobu – death fight
  • Shomen – place in the front of the dojo that displays items of high value to the art being taught
  • Shubukan- martial training hall, another name for dojo
  • Shugyo – severe training
  • Shugyo – the day-to-day struggle to refine and purify the quality of life
  • Shuko – attack with the whole body
  • Shuriken – small throwing weapons
  • Sochin dachi – outer tension stance or immovable stance, also referred to as fudo dachi
  • Sohei – warrior monks
  • Sojutsu – halberd fighting, spear art
  • Soke – head of family
  • Surujin – metal chain with a weight on one end and a bladed instrument on the other end
  • Suwari waza- techniques from a sitting or kneeling position
  • Taikai – tournament
  • Taiko – position when to participants face each other
  • Takebo – bamboo bo
  • Tameshigeri – spirit cut
  • Tan – to forge
  • Tan surujin – short surujin with a length of approximately 150 to 152 centimeters
  • Tandoku – solo training
  • Tantojutsu – dagger fighting
  • Tatami – training mat made of compressed woven straw
  • Tate – stand up
  • Tekko or Techu – Okinawan brass knuckles made from metal or wood and thought to have originated           as a horse stirrup
  • Tekubi-undo – wrist stretching
  • Tenchi – heaven and earth
  • Tenkan-ho – turning
  • Tenshin – avoiding an attack through body movements
  • Tessei no yari – iron lance
  • Tessen – fan made of iron that was used as a weapon or a signaling device
  • Tettsui – bottom of a weapon, also bottom fist
  • Tinbe – shield used with the rochin made of vine, cane, metal, or turtle shell
  • Tinbe rochin – short spear and shield
  • Tode- “Chinese hand”
  • Toide – grappling/joint locking
  • Tokui waza – favorite technique
  • Tokushu mochi – special grip
  • Tokushu nigiri – special hold
  • Tonfa or Tunfa – a wood implement believed to be used in farming and serves as a formidable weapon
  • Tonfajutsu – art of using the tonfa
  • Tori – executer of a technique
  • Torite – grab or grip
  • Toshu-jutsu – Okinawan term for the way of the empty hand or karate
  • Tsuka – grip of a weapon
  • Tsukagashira – head of a grip unique to a weapon
  • Tsukami waza - “catching technique”
  • Tsuki – thrust
  • Tsume – sai guard tip
  • Tsuujo no sai – the most common sai with the tang pair pointing in the same direction
  • Tsuzukete - continue
  • Tuite – refers to grappling skills
  • Uchideshi – live-in student
  • Uke – receiver of a technique
  • Ukemi waza – breakfalls
  • Ura waza – inside or hidden technique
  • Ushiro tsukagashira – butt of a weapon
  • Wa - harmony
  • Wabi-sabi – refers to contentment that comes from enjoyment of the most simple of things
  • Waza – techniques
  • Yakusoku kumite or Kihon kumite – prearranged or basic sparring
  • Yame – stop
  • Yari – spear
  • Yarijutsu – lance fighting
  • Yasume - rest
  • Yoko – side of a weapon
  • Yoko kote hikitori – side flip
  • Yoku – critical margin or interval
  • Yomi – reading the thoughts of another person
  • Yose mochi – double grip
  • Yose nigiri – double hold
  • Yu – action
  • Yudansha – shodan and above in ranking or a person with dan ranking
  • Zan - lingering
  • Zanshin - “remaining mind/heart” or extreme awareness